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Study: Sepsis Care Initiatives May Increase C. Difficile Rates, Antibiotic Resistance
Health care experts have long known the benefits of integrated sepsis care programs, yet less information has been published on potential unintended consequences of these programs.
That’s changed with a new study that suggests that electronic sepsis screenings and treatment protocols could, in fact, lead to increased use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics and health care facility-onset (HCFO) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates, according to findings published in the October issue of the American Journal of Infection Control. The research is the first to address the inadvertent impact of sepsis care programs on broad-spectrum antibiotic use among hospitals and nursing unit-levels—and follows previous reports demonstrating the effectiveness of sepsis care programs, now a part of most hospitals.
Lead researcher Jashvant Poeran, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Population Health Science and Policy, Orthopaedics, and Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, along with colleagues from the Mount Sinai Hospital, analyzed adult inpatients at a 1,171-bed tertiary-care teaching hospital who were admitted to nursing units with both sepsis care bundle programs in place and the highest incidences of sepsis, antibiotic use, and HCFO CDI. Researchers collected data on the administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics per 1,000 patient days and HCFO CDI data per 10,000 patient days from June 2011 through July 2014.
Poeran and his team defined sepsis care bundle programs as sepsis screenings integrated into a hospital’s electronic health record (EHR) and EHR-triggered antibiotic administration. This protocol aims to standardize initial evaluation and subsequent sepsis management orders, including monitoring, laboratory tests, and fluid and antibiotic administration. The order set recommends broad-spectrum antibiotics available for use without preauthorization from a hospital’s antibiotic stewardship team. These broad-spectrum antibiotics can increase the risk of CDI.
Over 127,346 total patient-days, researchers recorded increased antibiotic use and HCFO CDI during sepsis care bundle implementation, with the period directly following the implementation phase accounting for the highest rate of antibiotic use (50.4 days of therapy [DOT] per 1,000 patient-days).
Specifically, while HCFO CDI rates were decreasing before sepsis care bundle implementation (–1.4 events per 10,000 patient-days/month) they began to increase during (1.6 events per 10,000 patient-days/month) and following (10.8 events per 10,000 patient-days/month) implementation.
Over the three-year timeframe, the data recorded an HCFO CDI rate of 14.4 per 10,000 patient-days/month.
While overall, cefepime was the most commonly used antibiotic, the main driver of increased antibiotic use was levofloxacin, which, interestingly, was not part of the sepsis care order set. In the period directly following the sepsis care bundle implementation phase (compared to the period before implementation) levofloxacin increased by 32.7 DOT per 1,000 patient-days.
Researchers proposed several explanations for the study’s findings. For one, the increase in antibiotic administration could mirror the general increase in sepsis cases. But, as the study’s authors write, the uptick could also be due to changes in documentation and diagnosis patterns. Integrated sepsis care programs may identify septic patients earlier in their disease course. This would lead to increased doses of antibiotics, particularly if antibiotics can be prescribed without preauthorization.
“Integrated sepsis care streamlines how treatment is delivered. Yet as our research indicates, providers face the tough task of addressing how to deliver timely sepsis care, while mitigating potential unintended consequences such as an increase in health care facility-onset Clostridium difficile infection that may be linked to increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics,” said Poeran, the study’s lead researcher. “Hospitals’ antibiotic stewardship teams can use these observations to align protocol with processes that ensure appropriate antibiotic administration.”
Sepsis remains the leading cause of death in U.S. hospitals. Across the country, a person receives a sepsis diagnosis every 20 seconds, accounting for 1.6 million people in the U.S. per year. Some 258,000 people die from the disease. That’s one sepsis-related death every two minutes.
Source: APIC; October 3, 2017.